FGM/C is concentrated in at least 28 countries in a band that spans from West Africa to the Horn of Africa.
The prevalence of FGM/C varies widely across Africa - from as high as 99% (Somalia) and as low as 0.3% (Uganda). More importantly, FGM/C prevalence varies significantly within each country. FGM/C is a cultural practice particular to specific ethnic groups. These ethnic communities often spread across country borders. For example, Somali communities practice FGM/C in Somalia as well as in Kenya (especially the North East) and Ethiopia (especially in the East), while the Maasai community practice FGM/C in both Kenya and Tanzania.
Somali communities across the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, Somaliland and Somalia) have the highest prevalence of FGM/C. In Somalia, the national prevalence is 99.2%.
The highest burden of FGM/C is in Egypt (31 million), Ethiopia (33 million) and Nigeria (20 million). These three countries combined represent 42% of the global burden (200 million women and girls).
Type 3 FGM/C (also known as Pharaonic) is the most severe form of the practise and is widely practised in Somali communities across the Horn of Africa and in Sudan.
Prevalence has dropped most significantly in Kenya from 37.6% in 1998 to 14.8% in 2022. However, this progress is not uniform across the country.