Published by: International Journal of Social Science and Human Research
Year published: 2024


This paper is a critical review of Amitav Acharya's concept related to the process of global norm internalization. According to Acharya the process leads to three possible outcomes, i.e., the norms being accepted (norm displacement), adapted and modified (localization), or rejected (resistance rejection). This paper analyzes the localization of transnational norms to the domestic sphere, both the process, and its result, focusing on the case study of norm localization on anti-Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Gorontalo, Indonesia. In Gorontalo, the global norm of anti-FGM was initially accepted by the people and was implemented as government policies. However, later there was rejection by the people which pressured for the modification of the regulation. This paper attempts to answer the question of "How is the process of localization of transnational norms anti-female genital mutilation in Gorontalo, Indonesia?". Our findings lead to the identification of the various actors, factors and model of localization which are not necessarily similar to what has been proposed by Acharya. This paper hence contributes to the modification of Acharya’s model of norms internalization.