Published by: CIDIS
Year published: 2022

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the female genitalia or other injuries to the female genital organs for non-medical purposes. There are multiple types of female genital mutilation with different severities, of which the most radical one is commonly known as infibulation. Female Genital Mutilation is a gender-specific type of abuse, a clear violation of women's human rights and constitutes an extreme form of gender discrimination. Girls and women who undergone the procedures are completely deprived of the ability to decide for their own well-being. In addition to being very humiliating, genital mutilation is extremely painful physically and incredibly traumatic psychologically. Girls subjected to this practice can die from immediate complications such as haemorrhagic or neurogenic shock, caused by trauma and pain, and infections. Female Genital Mutilation can cause short, medium and long-term complications that include urinary, vaginal, sexual and psychological problems as well as scar tissue, keloids and increased risk of childbirth complications. Female Genital Mutilation constitutes a tradition that marks the passage from childhood to adulthood; according to this ritual, through physical manipulation, a socially constructed gender identity gives meaning to a biological one. The Region of Umbria stands out for having a big presence of foreign citizens, experiencing one of the highest in Italy at a regional level equal to 11,2% (ISTAT). In addition to this numbers, the flow of asylum seekers registered in the last few years should also be considered. These findings make it necessary for the institutions and bodies in Umbria to activate services capable to handle the needs of the new population (both residents and non-residents). The positive trend of the migration phenomenon, especially from countries with a high percentage of female genital mutilation, shows us that we need to monitor this problem constantly in our region, too, and pay closer attention to the young girls at risk. In light of this awareness, the present project aims to educate and raise awareness on Female Genital Mutilation (FMG) with the support of Regione Umbria in collaboration with AUSL (Local Health Unit) Umbria 2, CERSAG (Regional Centre of Global Health) and CIDIS.