Lead Author: RASHID Abdul
Co-Author(s): AFIQAH Siti Nur, IGUCHI Yufu
Year published: 2023

8.1 Introduction
This chapter is based on research conducted by the authors among the Malay Women Muslim communities (Rashid & Iguchi 2019) and Muslim doctors (Rashid et al. 2020). A mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) study was conducted among Malay Muslim women aged 18 years and older in the rural areas of Kedah and Penang, two states located in the Northern region of Peninsular Malaysia; and among Muslim medical practitioners registered as members in two major medical associations in Malaysia. In total 605 Malay Muslim women data and 366 Muslim doctors’ data were used for analysis. The qualitative component of the study included face-toface interviews using semi-structured interview guides and using snowball sampling method until data saturation was achieved. Eight traditional midwives, known as Mak Bidans in Malay, practice or had practiced FGC and 24 doctors who had experience performing FGC were interviewed in depth. Focus group discussions were also conducted with seven participants each from two groups of women (aged 18–45 and more than 45 years old) and one group of adult married men. In-depth interviews were held with two Muftis (religious scholars or jurists qualified to issue Islamic legal opinions). No focus group discussion was held with the doctors. This study was ethically conducted and all the participants provided a written informed consent. The research only commenced after receiving the ethical approval from Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Research Ethics Committee.